Lustro Italiano > Stone Reference

Basic Stone Information

This page is designed to be a growing collection of information regarding natural and engineered stone. Each stone has its own characteristics. This is meant to give you reference information that may prove helpful.

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Natural Granite

Description:

Since the term granite is used to describe a variety of stone we have refined the descriptions for clarification. Natural granite as described here, is the granite rock that forms in nature. Here is some information regarding what we call "natural granite".

Formation Process:

Natural granite is an igneous rock which is formed by volcanic magma cooling and becoming solid.

Appearance:

Granite comes in a variety of colors and visual textures. The color of the granite is affected by the minerals it contains.

Composition:

Natural granite is mainly composed of quartz and feldspar but contains other minerals as well.

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Commercial Granite

Description:

Since the term granite is used to describe a variety of stone we have refined the descriptions for clarification. Commercial granite as described here, is a rock that is granular and is harder than a marble. Here is some information regarding what we call "commercial granite".

Appearance:

Rock with visible grains that is harder than marble. Using this definition, a variety of rock can be labeled "granite" including:

  • Gabbro
  • Basalt
  • Pegmatite
  • Schist
  • Gneiss
  • Syenite
  • Monzonite
  • Anorthosite
  • Granodiorite
  • Diabase
  • Diorite

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Limestone

Description:

Limestone is a soft sedimentary rock that is versatile and comes in a variety of earth tones including:

  • Ivory
  • Brown
  • Gray
  • Red
  • Yellow

Appearance:

Characteristics of limestone include streaks, fossils, shells, pits, and iron spots. Additionally, is comes in a few colors compared to other natural stone.

Formation:

Limestone is a sedimentary rock formed as layers of deposited rock material.

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Marble

Description:

Marble is a soft metamorphic rock that is versatile and comes in a wide range of colors. Some notable hues include:

  • Green
  • Pink
  • Black
  • White
  • Gray

Appearance:

Characteristics of marble include the signature veining and swirls are usually due to the presence of mineral impurities like clay, sand and silt.

Formation:

Marble is a metamorphic rock formed from the metamorphosis of sedimentary carbonate rock like limestone or dolomite.

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Travertine

Description:

Travertine is a form of limestone that is deposited by hot springs. It is a terrestrial sedimentary rock. Some notable hues of travertine include:

  • Tan
  • Gray
  • Cream
  • Rust
  • White

Appearance:

Characteristics of Travertine include the distinctive aged, rustic look. The surface features pits and holes that can be filled or left unfilled depending on your preference. Although filling travertine may result in a more durable surface.

Formation:

Travertine forms where calcium carbonate minerals rapidly precipitate. It is often used as a building material.

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Slate

Description:

This rustic stone is dense and strong. Slate is commonly used for flooring and exterior landscaping such as steps or staircases. It is found in a number of colors and hues, including:

  • Green
  • Black
  • Brown
  • Red
  • Purple
  • Gray

Appearance:

Like other natural stones, slate has a rustic appearance and is used in a variety of ways in the construction of buildings - both commercial and residential.

Formation:

Slate is formed by the alteration of shale through metamorphism. Increased levels of heat an pressure contribute to its formation. Among the minerals that can be found in slate are hematite, feldspar, pyrite, calcite and even quartz.